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Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Ebola virus disease
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INTRODUCTION — The family Filoviridae consists of two genera, the Ebola and Marburg viruses, which are among the most virulent pathogens of humans [1]. The Zaire species of Ebola virus, discovered in an outbreak in Zaire (the present Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1976, is the causative agent of the 2014 epidemic in West Africa, where the case fatality rate is estimated to be as high as70 percent [2]; rates in earlier outbreaks reached 80 to 90 percent [3].

Epidemics of Ebola virus disease are generally thought to begin when an individual becomes infected through contact with the body fluids of an infected animal. Once the individual becomes ill or dies, the virus then spreads to others who come into direct contact with their blood, skin, or other body fluids. On rare occasions, Ebola virus disease has resulted from accidental laboratory infections, and there is concern that the virus might be used as an agent of bioterrorism.

The clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Ebola virus disease will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of this disease are discussed elsewhere. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease" and "Treatment and prevention of Ebola virus disease".)
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Modify Date: 11-12-2014
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